Gold was known by the Indians to exist in the United States long before the white people discovered it, but unlike the Indians of Mexico, the more northern natives did not make elaborate use of it, and it did not seriously attract the attention of the settlers until shortly before the beginning of the nineteenth century. No very important mining, however, was done until after 1800, when a little gold began to be obtained in North Carolina. Long before that time the gold of California had also been known to the natives and to the Franciscan monks, but that country then belonged to Mexico and was not taken by the United States until 1846...
This book is a significant contribution to the subject of mining time-changing data streams and addresses the design of learning algorithms for this purpose. It introduces new contributions on several different aspects of the problem, identifying research opportunities and increasing the scope for applications. It also includes an in-depth study of stream mining and a theoretical analysis of proposed methods and algorithms. The first section is concerned with the use of an adaptive sliding window algorithm (ADWIN). Since this has rigorous performance guarantees, using it in place of counters or accumulators, it offers the possibility of extending such guarantees to learning and mining algorithms not initially designed for drifting data. Testing with several methods, including Naive Bayes, clustering, decision trees and ensemble methods, is discussed as well. The second part of the book describes a formal study of connected acyclic graphs, or 'trees', from the point of view of closure-based mining, presenting efficient algorithms for subtree testing and for mining ordered and unordered frequent closed trees. Lastly, a general methodology to identify closed patterns in a data stream is outlined. This is applied to develop an incremental method, a sliding-window based method, and a method that mines closed trees adaptively from data streams. These are used to introduce classification methods for tree data streams.
Originally published in 1987, John D. Leshy presents this scholarly study of the 1872 Mining Law as a legal treatise and history of mining in the West from the point of view of mineral exploration and production. This mining law governed the United States mining practice yet had never been changed. The Mining Law attempts to highlight the role of policy and government as well as the more obscure elements of the law which complicated mining practice in the eighties. This title will be of interest to students of Environmental Studies and policy makers.
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